Cardiovascular disease risk and added sugar intake

A high sugar diet has been linked to increased risk of heart disease mortality [1-2]. Consuming high levels of added sugar are associated with risk factors for heart disease such as weight gain and raised blood pressure [3]. Excessive dietary glucose and fructose have been shown to increase the production and accumulation of fatty cells in the liver and bloodstream which is inked to both cardiovasucluar disease and kidney and liver disease [4]. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the major causes of chronic liver disease and is associated with the development of Type 2 Diabetes and coronary heart disease.

1] Yang Q, Zhang Z, Gregg E.W, Flanders, WD, Merritt R, MA; Hu F.B. (2014) Added Sugar Intake and Cardiovascular Diseases Mortality Among US Adults. Results from this study showed an association between higher intakes of added sugar and the risk of death from cardiovascular disease. Those who consumed  between 17-21% of their daily energy from added sugar had a 38% higher risk of death from cardiovascular disease compared to those who consumed less than 10% of their calories from added sugar. Those who consumed 25% of their calories from added sugar trebled their risk of death from cardiovascular disease when compared to those who consumed less than 10% of their calories from added sugar.  

2] Duffey K.J, Gordon-Larsen P, Steffen L.M, Jacobs D.R, Popkin B.M. (2010) Drinking caloric beverages increases the risk of adverse cardio-metabolic outcomes in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study.  This study examined the relationship between the consumption of different types of beverages and their association with risk factors for cardio-metabolic disease. The findings suggest higher consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages are associated with an increased risk of cardio-metabolic disease. 

3] Xi B, Huang Y, Reilly K.H, Li S, Zheng R, Barrio-Lopez M.T, Martinez-Gonzalez M.A, Zhouet D. (2015) Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of hypertension and CVD: a dose-response meta-analysis. This study investigated the association between the consumption of added sugar and the risk of high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease and stroke. A higher consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage was associated with a higher risk of hypertension and coronary heart disease, although not with the risk of stroke. 

4] Schwarz J.M, Noworolski S.M, Wen M.J, Dyachenko A, Prior J.L, Weinberg M.E, Herraiz L.A, Tai V.W, Bergeron N, Bersot T.P, Rao M.N, Schambelan M, Mulligan K. (2015) Effect of a High-Fructose Weight-Maintaining Diet on Lipogenesis and Liver Fat. Research as to the exact role of dietary fructose in the development of chronic disease is continuing to grow. This small-scale experimental study identified an increase in fatty acid synthesis and liver fat in healthy men when on a high fructose diet, independent of weight gain.